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I Timothy 1-6 Listen
Introduction to I Timothy
Paul wrote this letter to Timothy probably somewhere between 62 and 66 A.D; we are told in the postscript that Paul was in Laodicea at the time of the writing. Timothy was one of Paul's preacher boys. The postscript to II Timothy tells us that Timothy was "the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians." This letter gives pastoral instruction to Timothy for direction in his ministry. Timothy had a Greek father and Hebrew mother...which made him Greek. However, after conversion, Paul took him through the Jewish proselyte rituals for the sake of their ministry to Jews; Timothy was circumcised at that time.
1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope;
2 Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.
3 As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine,
4 Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.
5 Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned:
6 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling;
7 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm.
8 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully;
9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers,
10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;
11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.
Paul first met Timothy on his second missionary journey at Lystra in Acts 16:1-3 (see notes). He then became a companion to Paul. Later, Timothy became a dependable messenger for Paul to the churches. Having discipled Timothy, Paul refers to him as "my own son in the faith" in verse 2. The trip into Macedonia, while leaving Timothy in Ephesus (verse 3), is not documented in the Book of Acts. It probably took place afterward. Just as then, Paul instructs Timothy to hold the doctrinal line when he says in verse 3, "...that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine." There is some description of that doctrine against which Paul warns in verses 4-7, but not to the extent that we can get a clear view of exactly the error that was being taught. It would appear to be doctrine associated with the teaching of the Gnostics of the first century.
From these comments, here's what we may derive about this false doctrine:
Based upon these comments, it seems that Paul is probably warning against a strain of Gnostic doctrine being taught.
The Gospel message was being abused by incompetent teachers. Paul sums it up in verses 6-7, "From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling; Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm." As you must be aware, incompetent teachers thrive even today. Unfortunately, there are a lot of preachers today who do not spend time studying God's Word - rightly dividing the Word of Truth. As a result, a lot of preaching today has insufficient scriptural basis. It was true in Paul's day, and it's still true today.
Paul goes on to explain that these incompetent preachers even misunderstand the purpose of the law. Believers don't live by the law of Moses - it's there to condemn the lost, sinful condition of man. Romans 3:19-20 (see notes) says, "Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin." Paul makes a similar short declarative statement about the Law of Moses in verse 8, "But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully." These incompetent teachers miss that important lesson. And what is that lawful use of the law? Condemnation of the wicked as seen in verses 9-10. In other words, the Law of Moses is not to be taught as the goal of victorious Christian living; that only comes through leadership of the Holy Spirit. There are a host of misguided Christians today who believe that they are saved by grace, but kept saved by adhering to the Law of Moses. Ironically, these Christians have never faced the issue of their deliberate dismissal of commandment #4 regarding sabbath-day keeping. For a greater perspective on this issue, click here to read the article entitled, "The Sabbath Day."
11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.
12 And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry;
13 Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.
14 And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
15 This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.
16 Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter believe on him to life everlasting.
17 Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
18 This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare;
19 Holding faith, and a good conscience; which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck:
20 Of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.
Verse 11 actually tags onto the end of verse 10. After Paul describes the actions of unregenerate wicked people, he throws in a catch-all phrase, "and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine." Verse 11 then expands upon the term "sound doctrine" when Paul says, "According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust." There is a systematic approach to life in Christ taught by Paul and based upon salvation by grace. This system excludes "law" as a means of finding favor with God. Paul fought for this doctrine of salvation by grace against those who sought to dilute it throughout his ministry because he believed that this doctrine was "committed to my trust."
Paul continues with his ministry resume in verse 12 crediting Jesus Christ for "putting me into the ministry." That means it wasn't just a job choice for Paul, but a calling from Christ himself - a calling despite the fact that he refers to his past as having included being a "blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious." Since he actually presided over the execution of Stephen in Acts 7 (see notes), one might even go one step further in indicting Paul's past. All of this was done ignorantly in the name of religion, as he points out in verse 13. Nonetheless, he is assured in verses 14-15 that Christ's grace was waaaaay sufficient to forgive his past, even though he categorizes himself as "chief" (Greek: "protos" meaning number 1) among sinners. Christ came to save sinners. Paul says that he was "chief" (number 1) as a sinner. After all, he did persecute Christians before his conversion - probably even sentenced some to death...and then there was Stephen, but Christ saved him anyway. That's a powerful message that can save someone like Paul. He encourages Timothy to stick to this saving message.
Why was mercy extended to Paul for salvation? We see in verse 16 that Paul regarded the mercy extended to him by God as an example of God's longsuffering to those who follow. If Jesus Christ would reach down and save the number 1 sinner, he'll save anyone. Verse 17 speaks to his authority to do so because he is "the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God."
Paul then issues a charge to Timothy in verses 18-19 which includes a restatement of his previous ministry call, having been confirmed by "prophecies" regarding him at the time of his ordination. Note the two references to Timothy's ordination found in verse 18 here and I Timothy 4:14:
I Timothy 1:18 This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare;
I Timothy 4:14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.
It appears that Timothy had been ordained to the ministry in a setting accompanied by prophecies concerning his ministry as well as the laying on of hands by the body of elders present; that sounds like a formal ordination service. Here's the charge: "War a good warfare." Isn't it interesting that Paul uses warfare terminology to define the ministry to which Timothy was called. Then Paul deals with a couple of fellows who blasphemed in the course of their ministering, Hymenaeus and Alexander. One of them gets mentioned again in II Timothy 4:14 (see notes), "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him according to his works:" Obviously their wrongdoing was doctrinal, and Paul does to them what he had suggested be done to the adulterer in I Corinthians 5 (see notes) where the decree in both instances was to deliver the offenders over to Satan. It is believed by most that this terminology involved the withdrawal of fellowship from the offenders by people of faith i.e. excommunication. What was their sin? Paul describes it as, after "holding faith, and a good conscience," then "having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck." They didn't hold the line on their teaching of sound doctrine. It is apparent that Paul took seriously the preaching of heretical doctrine.
1 I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;
2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.
3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;
In verse 1 Paul writes, "I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men." It's interesting that he uses three different words which might be used interchangeably, but they do each describe prayer from a little different perspective.
Notice the three words used here:
As you can see, all three words address a little different aspect of one's prayers. Add to that the "giving of thanks," and Paul has just defined spirit-led prayer life. These prayers, however, are specifically directed toward leadership. In other words, we pray for our leaders that we might lead peaceful lives, a subject Paul also addressed in Romans 13:1-7 (see notes). It is ironic that it was the very Roman government for whom Paul is praying here that gave him fits. And...according to tradition, Paul was executed by that Roman government after a subsequent incarceration. Why pray for such evil people? First of all, "that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life" (verse 2). Furthermore, we see in verse 3, "For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour." In short, it's just the right thing to do.
4 Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.
5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;
6 Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.
7 Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity.
Verse 4 is worth repeating here regarding salvation for all: "Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth." No matter what you may have thought, God does desire (Greek: "thelo" means "will, desire, wish") to see everyone come to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. The fact that, in God's foreknowledge, he knows the names of all the people who will reject Christ as savior presents a doctrinal dilemma for some, but not me. It is what it is. Yes, he wants everyone to be saved, and yes, he knows who will accept and reject; he's God; he knows everything. If you still have questions about the issue of God's foreknowledge and the doctrine of predestination, click here to read the notes on Romans 9.
I Timothy 2:5 is a powerful verse, "For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;" Who, alone, stands between God and man to make intercession? Answer: ONLY JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD! No substitutes allowed! We see the substitutionary death of Jesus Christ on the cross for us in verse 6 where he is seen as "a ransom for all." This single New Testament usage of the Greek word "antilutron" ("ransom") is defined as "the means or instrument by which release or deliverance is made possible." He makes clear in verse 7 that it is this Christ-is-our-mediator message that has been entrusted to him which he preaches faithfully to the Gentiles in "faith" and "verity" (Greek: "alethia" - "truth"). Though not a popular message back home or to Jewish leaders anywhere, Paul had to preach the "truth."
8 I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.
9 In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;
10 But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.
11 Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection.
12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.
13 For Adam was first formed, then Eve.
14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.
15 Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.
Now, after a little informational detour, it's back to the issue of prayer which Paul began in verse 1. In that verse he dealt with the content of one's prayer; now he continues in verse 8 with the testimony aspect of prayer. He declares, "I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting." Paul expresses his desire that Christian men be seen praying for the people in verses 1-2 "everywhere." That's not a figurative statement; Paul uses the Greek dative form of the noun "topos" with the all-inclusive adjective "pas" to indicate "in all places." He is stressing the importance of men having a public testimony that characterizes them as men of prayer. He adds that their prayers should be "without wrath and doubting." We know Paul is talking about a public display because of his continuation in verse 9 with the public testimony of women, introducing it with, "in like manner also."
Now, Paul discusses the public testimony of Christian women. The problem is that political correctness in today's society rejects this God-given role of women. First of all, Paul says that women should dress themselves modestly. He itemizes a style of dress that identified loose women in his day. Don't get hung up on the specifics of the dress style here; just know that there is similarly a style of dress which advertises the wrong aspect of women today - one that flaunts all the wrong characteristics of a woman from a Christian perspective; this style should be avoided. Instead, the aspect of a Christian woman that should be accentuated is her service for the Lord (verse 10).
Then we have the stake in the heart of the modern-day women's movement. Paul says in verses 11-12, "Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence." I don't feel a liberty to apply this scripture outside of a church setting, but it seems clear in that setting. What about women preachers? Well...it says what it says. The literal meaning and all implications here seem clearly stated by Paul; within the church setting, men are charged with taking the lead. A similar statement is made regarding the participation of women in corporate worship in I Corinthians 14:34 (see notes).
Paul does venture outside the church setting here with verses 13-15 in validating a woman's role in marriage. The verb "saved" (Greek: "sozo") in verse 15 does not necessarily refer to spiritual salvation, and it does not mean that here. His comments here are meant to suggest the following idea: For Godly women, their fulfillment in life is met as they raise good, strong, principled children. It's sad that we live in a society today where homemakers are discounted and demeaned. Bible-believing Christians place a badge of honor on all women who choose to put their families in the spotlight as Paul encourages here.
1 This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work.
2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;
3 Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous;
4 One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity;
5 (For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?)
6 Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil.
7 Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.
In the New Testament, four words describe a single office within the local church - elder, bishop, pastor, shepherd." Elder" comes from a Greek word, "presbuteros," which was the term used to describe those who governed a city or province in addition to being the general term for an older person. "Bishop" comes from the Greek word, "episcopos," which means "superintendent" or "overseer." This word was commonly used to describe a person who was in charge of a particular job, like a building contractor. "Pastor/shepherd" are translations of a third Greek word, "poimaine." This word is only translated "pastor" in one verse in the New Testament, Ephesians 4:11 (see notes). Every other occurrence is translated shepherd.
When Paul addresses the Elders of the church in Ephesus in Acts 20:17-38 (see notes), he uses all three Greek words seen here to describe the same office. So, there is no scriptural differentiation between and elder, bishop, pastor or shepherd; they are all the same office with each word highlighting a different aspect of that responsibility. Men who are called by God to this office serve as pastors/shepherds of a flock (local church body). In this passage, Paul gives the scriptural qualifications for those who feel that God has called them to this office. See the information box to the right of this window for complete information regarding the duties and qualifications of this office or click here to see the article entitled, "Pastors, Bishops and Elders" in a separate window.
8 Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre;
9 Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience.
10 And let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless.
11 Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things.
12 Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.
13 For they that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.
Paul then gives the scriptural qualifications for those who want to serve as deacons. While it is not indicated per se, we assume that the 7 men who were appointed by the apostles in Acts 6 (see notes) to assist them in the ministry of the distribution to the needy within the church were the first deacons. That being the case, the model seems to be that, when there is more to be done in the ministry than there are elders to do it, the church subsidizes the effort with deacons. Since elders/bishops/pastors are called by God to the gospel ministry, it would be inappropriate to appoint someone to be an elder who was not called to that office by God. Therefore, deacons are the local-church solution to this problem.
Here are the qualifications Paul lists for deacons in verses 8-12:
Paul concludes in verse 13 by saying, "For they that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus." The Greek word for "degree" here is "bathmos" which means "social standing." In other words, the office of a deacon puts one out front for scrutiny. It is an example position for others.
14 These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly:
15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.
16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.
Paul expresses his desire to visit with Timothy, but until then, this letter will have to suffice, serving as a document of detailed instructions on how one's ministry should be conducted. He adds gravity to the mission when he highlights the target in verse 15, "the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth." Paul means to convey the vital importance of the pastoral ministry here. If any pastor ever thinks that what he does isn't really that important, read verses 14-16 again.
So, in Paul's ministry, what's all the flack about with the Jews? Well, here it is in a nutshell - the mystery of godliness. A "mystery" is that which cannot be known by the natural (not spirit led) mind, usually in the context of having been previously hidden. This, indeed, is the concept rejected by the Jews. Let's look closely at this "mystery" in verse 16, "And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory."
Now, let's break down verse 16:
And that's why it's called by Paul a "mystery" (Greek: musterion). The natural mind rejects the supernatural purpose and existence of Jesus Christ.
1 Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;
2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;
3 Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.
4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving:
5 For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.
It is generally believed that first-century Gnostics were ascetic in their approach to lifestyle issues, expressed most noticeably in their sexual and dietary practices. Whether these comments are directed specifically toward the Gnostics or not, there are some people (then and now) who think they aren't doing enough sacrificing for Christ. In Paul's day, as well as ours, there were those who adopted strange practices that they proclaimed should be practiced by everyone with a commitment to Christ. Basically, however, it amounts to false doctrine - not pleasing before God. It adds an extra-scriptural layer of obedience to following Christ that is not appropriate. Therefore, it becomes an evil addition to one's faith, and Paul treats it as evil in this passage. These ascetic measures do sound familiar, don't they?
Paul names two practices of these false teachers that help us identify their error in verse 3, abstinence from marriage and vegetarianism. Don't misunderstand; one may practice either of these and not be a false teacher. However, we see in this passage that they taught these as the way to find favor with God; that's what makes it heresy...and heresy it is.
Look at the unflattering remarks he makes regarding their doctrine and those who teach it in verses 1-2:
In verses 4-5 he confirms that these two heretical practices are not to be regarded as scriptural mandates. Why is Paul so hard on practices that seem quite innocent? Consider this: When people add extra-scriptural conditions to salvation or life in Christ, they destroy the doctrine of salvation by grace. So, while Paul names just two of the characteristic false teachings of these first-century teachers of asceticism, understand that ANY teaching which adds to the conditions for salvation or favor with God are equally as evil.
A good servant of Jesus Christ (I Timothy 4:6-16)
6 If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast attained.
7 But refuse profane and old wives’ fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness.
8 For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.
9 This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation.
10 For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe.
11 These things command and teach.
12 Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.
13 Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.
14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.
15 Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all.
16 Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.
In verse 6 Paul encourages Timothy to stick with his training; teach those things which he knows to be sound doctrine. In doing so, he is a "good minister of Jesus Christ." The Greek word for "minister" is "diakonos" and is frequently used in the context of non-pastoral service. Based upon context, it is obvious that Paul intends his comment to reflect the worthy service of a pastoral minister in holding the doctrinal line. Paul encourages Timothy to stay focused. Don't get distracted with meaningless rituals and teachings which he describes as "profane" (Greek: "bebelos" - worldly, godless) and "old wives fables." The word "fables" is the Greek: "muthos" i.e. "myths" - things made up without any basis in substance. In other words, people tend to add spurious accessories to doctrinal truths; don't be fooled by them.
Paul figuratively uses the word for physical exercise in verse 7 when he encourages Timothy to exercise himself spiritually. When compared to his statement in verse 8, "For bodily exercise profiteth little," it is obvious that Paul is talking about the aggressive sharpening of Timothy's ministry skills, just as one physically exercises in pursuit of athletic excellence. He further comments that the former has eternal rewards. Paul emphasizes in verse 9 that his preceding comments are to be universally accepted as sound doctrine. Paul himself has labored and suffered for this doctrine (verse 10). Notice his comment in verse 10, "the Savior of all men." That is so in that Jesus paid "a ransom for all" (verse 2:6, see above), although only Believers are born again, the concept captured in Paul's additional stipulation here, "specially of those that believe."
Beginning in verse 11, Paul challenges Timothy to "command and teach" these things, but in so doing, act like an adult. That may seem like a strange admonition, but obviously Timothy was a young man. Paul is telling him that if he displays the immaturity of youth, he will have a difficult time ministering, especially to more mature Believers. Hang up the skateboard Timothy, you're in a man's world now!
He comprehensively itemizes aspects of living in which Timothy should make certain he shines as an example in verse 12.
He gives him the successful ministry key in verse 13, "give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine." No question - Paul has placed some high expectations on Timothy here. He reminds him of his ordination to the ministry in verse 14 (see notes on 1:18 above). Paul concludes the remarks he began in verse 1 regarding those teaching false doctrine by emphasizing that correct doctrine "saves." The implications are clear; false doctrine causes people to miss the message of salvation. Paul again encourages him to hold the doctrinal line.
1 Rebuke not an elder, but intreat him as a father; and the younger men as brethren;
2 The elder women as mothers; the younger as sisters, with all purity.
3 Honour widows that are widows indeed.
4 But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety at home, and to requite their parents: for that is good and acceptable before God.
5 Now she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, trusteth in God, and continueth in supplications and prayers night and day.
6 But she that liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth.
7 And these things give in charge, that they may be blameless.
8 But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
9 Let not a widow be taken into the number under threescore years old, having been the wife of one man,
10 Well reported of for good works; if she have brought up children, if she have lodged strangers, if she have washed the saints’ feet, if she have relieved the afflicted, if she have diligently followed every good work.
11 But the younger widows refuse: for when they have begun to wax wanton against Christ, they will marry;
12 Having damnation, because they have cast off their first faith.
13 And withal they learn to be idle, wandering about from house to house; and not only idle, but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not.
14 I will therefore that the younger women marry, bear children, guide the house, give none occasion to the adversary to speak reproachfully.
15 For some are already turned aside after Satan.
16 If any man or woman that believeth have widows, let them relieve them, and let not the church be charged; that it may relieve them that are widows indeed.
17 Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine.
18 For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.
19 Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses.
20 Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear.
21 I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality.
22 Lay hands suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other men’s sins: keep thyself pure.
23 Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach’s sake and thine often infirmities.
24 Some men’s sins are open beforehand, going before to judgment; and some men they follow after.
25 Likewise also the good works of some are manifest beforehand; and they that are otherwise cannot be hid.
How slaves are to act (I Timothy 6:1-2)
1 Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.
2 And they that have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren; but rather do them service, because they are faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort.
Slavery during the first century was a legal reality and had been for centuries in the Roman empire and the empires that preceded it. These slaves under Roman rule were not entire races, but rather certain people from within each race who were in bondage as slaves.
So, how might one end up being a slave during that era? Derived form extra-biblical historical documents, here are a few ways:
The first two scenarios listed were probably the primary sources for the greatest number of slaves in Roman society during that era.
Paul deals briefly with the proper attitude of slaves toward their owners. He had no power to change laws governing slavery. Some have questioned why Paul did not condemn slavery altogether in this and other passages. Keep in mind two issues at hand: First, when raised as a slave from birth, Roman society would have been economically intolerant of one who had acquired his freedom in most circumstances. This was the lifestyle to which they were accustomed. The security of a benevolent slave owner was preferred by many over freedom. Second of all, Paul's ministry was not one of government reform. His was a ministry of reconciliation to God. Here was a man writing to people from prison, enduring his own version of false imprisonment. So, understand that these verses represent Paul's instructions to Believers who were slaves and to slave owners.
Click here to see the notes on Ephesians 6:5-9 regarding the slave/master relationship. In that passage Paul also explains the proper attitude a slave owner should have with regard to his slaves.
3 If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to wholesome words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness;
4 He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings,
5 Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: from such withdraw thyself.
6 But godliness with contentment is great gain.
7 For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out.
8 And having food and raiment let us be therewith content.
9 But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition.
10 For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
Even though these words immediately follow Paul's brief encouragement to slaves, he seems to be referencing the entire body of his teaching with these comments. This would seem to be the capper on this whole letter of doctrinal mandates.
Notice the authority Paul places upon the writings of this epistle in verse 3 by referring to them as:
Those who dispute Paul's teachings are addressed specifically in verses 4-5. Here's the deal: Paul's words written to Timothy (and elsewhere in the New Testament) have the absolute authority of inspired scripture from God...equal in strength with the words of Jesus and the entirety of the Old Testament. Paul writes to Timothy in II Timothy 3:16-17 (see notes), "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works." Understand that verses 4-5 dispel the notion that doctrine contrary to the teachings of Paul may be considered in any way acceptable. Not only is the contrary doctrine to be rejected, but those teaching that doctrine are to be rejected as those with evil intent.
Paul is directing this passage to Timothy, warning him of these who would use the ministry for financial gain. These false teachers modify their messages so as to extract money from their followers. That's wrong, wrong, wrong! Paul then makes some general comments that should serve as a warning to anyone who puts the accumulation of wealth as a higher priority than serving God. Paul has already acknowledged that it is appropriate to receive compensation for the ministry back in 5:17-19 (see above). However, he finds unacceptable those who are in the ministry for the money in this passage. He addresses those who do not accept that premise of ministry in verse 9 when he says, "But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition." If we stick to the context, Paul is obviously talking about one's motivation for ministering. The Gospel of Jesus Christ should not be preached strictly for financial compensation. While many have taken this as a general exhortation regarding greed for money, it really seems to be a money-versus-sincere-ministry issue in verses 9-10 as well. Those who ministered for the money "erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows." Timothy is then encouraged to stick to the correct motivation for ministry in verses 11-12.
Fight the good fight of faith (I Timothy 6:11-21)
11 But thou, O man of God, flee these things; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness.
12 Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou art also called, and hast professed a good profession before many witnesses.
13 I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession;
14 That thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ:
15 Which in his times he shall shew, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;
16 Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen.
17 Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not highminded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God, who giveth us richly all things to enjoy;
18 That they do good, that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate;
19 Laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.
20 O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called:
21 Which some professing have erred concerning the faith. Grace be with thee. Amen.
Paul encourages Timothy to minister with the correct motivation (verse 11). Here's Timothy's pep talk from Paul. Timothy is to view his ministry like a fight; Satan certainly does. He warns Timothy not to fall into the trap practiced by so many of modifying the clear presentation of the Gospel (verse 14). As a matter of fact, that seems to be the overriding theme of this letter written to Timothy, "Stay firm with sound doctrine." In his parting words, Paul strengthens his encouragement for Timothy to stick to his solid ministry resolve.
Paul concludes this letter to Timothy with some additional words about the proper message he should convey to those of financial means in verses 17-19. They should be encouraged to use their wealth for God's glory in that they share with others.
Finally, Timothy is once again told to resist teachings that contradict sound doctrine. "Profane" comes from the Greek word, "bebelos." It literally refers to worldly, godless words. In other words, when we are talking about the supernatural nature of God, we do an injustice to the clear teaching of scripture when we minimize God's power and authority with concepts that are anything less than descriptive of God in that supernatural context. These "vain babblings" come from the compound Greek word "kenophonia." These are "empty sounds" - sophisticated-sounding words that have no real meaning. The Greek word translated "science" in the KJV is "gnosis." It's the word for "knowledge," but here holds the connotation of being the doctrine of "knowledge" taught by those in the first century we know as "Gnostics." Their sinister teachings were mostly error built upon a little bit of truth. Paul deals with them in his opening words of this letter in I Timothy 1:1-11 (see above). Paul also warned of this Gnostic teaching in Colossians (see notes).