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The daily summaries are written by Wayne D. Turner, Pastor of Fayette Bible Church in Fayetteville, Georgia

This is the March 29 reading. Select here for a new reading date:


BibleTrack Summary: March 29
<< Num 27

For New King James text and comment, click here.

Numbers 28-30     Listen Podcast

 

As Israel is preparing themselves to enter into Canaan and possess the land at this point in Numbers, it is important for them to have an impeccable relationship with God. Their prescribed offerings to God are restated here in Numbers 28-29 to keep before them their dependence on God.

Daily Offerings (Numbers 28:1-8)

1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
2 Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, and my bread for my sacrifices made by fire, for a sweet savour unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me in their due season.
3 And thou shalt say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the LORD; two lambs of the first year without spot day by day, for a continual burnt offering.
4 The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even;
5 And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meat offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil.
6 It is a continual burnt offering, which was ordained in mount Sinai for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
7 And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto the LORD for a drink offering.
8 And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer IT, A SACRIFICE MADE BY FIRE, OF A SWEET SAVOUR UNTO THE LORD.

Every morning and evening, a lamb had to be sacrificed. This was a communal offering made on behalf of the people. It is a restatement of the same sacrifices specified in Exodus 29:38-43 (see notes) on the occasion of the consecration of the newly-erected tabernacle. Verse 4 specifies, "The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even;" That's two lambs a day. "Why?" you say. Exodus 29:43 says, "And there I will meet with the children of Israel, and the tabernacle shall be sanctified by my glory."

Sabbath Offerings (Numbers 28:9-10)

9 And on the sabbath day two lambs of the first year without spot, and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and the drink offering thereof:
10 This is the burnt offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.

Everyone dwelling among the Israelites is required by this statute to observe the sabbath, according to Exodus 31:12–18 (see notes). Again, this is a communal offering made on behalf of the people. It involved the sacrifice of two more lambs on each regular sabbath day. This additional offering on the sabbath is specified here for the first time. It is interesting to note that the sabbath day was not a day of corporate worship for the Hebrews, but rather a day of rest.

Monthly Offerings (Numbers 28:11-15

11 And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot;
12 And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram;
13 And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat offering unto one lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
14 And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
15 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.

The inclusion of a new moon offering only appears in this chapter. The new moon began a new month for Israel. This communal offering is placed on a par with other major festivals with its sacrifice of a larger number of valuable animals (two bulls, a ram and seven sheep) and the addition of a sacrificial goat as a sin offering. Incidentally, the ancient calendar was an observational calendar based upon the appearance of a new moon to indicate the first day of the successive month. If you looked out your tent window and saw this sacrifice taking place, the old month was gone and the new one had begun. For more information on the observational calendar see the information box to the right or click here.

In the remaining verses of Numbers 28 and all of 29 we find specifications regarding all of the seven feasts (festivals) specified in Leviticus 23 (see notes).
Click here to see a chart detailing each one of these Jewish festivals.

Passover (Numbers 28:16)
(see festival chart)

16 And in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover of the LORD.

It's just given one verse here. The chart referenced above will give you a complete overview. Incidentally, Nisan 14, Passover Day, was not a no-work holiday.

Feast of Unleavened Bread Offerings (Numbers 28:17-25)
(see festival chart)

17 And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast: seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten.
18 In the first day shall be an holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work therein:
19 But ye shall offer a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be unto you without blemish:
20 And their meat offering shall be of flour mingled with oil: three tenth deals shall ye offer for a bullock, and two tenth deals for a ram;
21 A several tenth deal shalt thou offer for every lamb, throughout the seven lambs:
22 And one goat for a sin offering, to make an atonement for you.
23 Ye shall offer these beside the burnt offering in the morning, which is for a continual burnt offering.
24 After this manner ye shall offer daily, throughout the seven days, the meat of the sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: it shall be offered beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
25 And on the seventh day ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread is celebrated during the seven days after Passover. We first saw it in Exodus 12:14-20 (see notes). This festival marked the beginning of the barley harvest (March-April). Unleavened bread was made from the newly harvested grain without adding yeast and was eaten as the first sign of coming harvests that year. The first day of this seven-day festival and the seventh day were no-work days. On the first day, two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year were offered along with a goat. This communal offering falls on the heels of the individual Passover lamb slain by each family the previous day.

Offerings for the Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) (Numbers 28:26-31)
(see festival chart)

26 Also in the day of the firstfruits, when ye bring a new meat offering unto the LORD, after your weeks be out, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work:
27 But ye shall offer the burnt offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD; two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year;
28 And their meat offering of flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals unto one bullock, two tenth deals unto one ram,
29 A several tenth deal unto one lamb, throughout the seven lambs;
30 And one kid of the goats, to make an atonement for you.
31 Ye shall offer them beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, (they shall be unto you without blemish) and their drink offerings.

This festival is also called the day of first fruits, celebrating the end of the barley harvest and was also known as Pentecost. It fell fifty days after the regular sabbath day of the week following Passover (always a Sunday). That 50 caused it to inherit the name "Pentecost" in the Greek language to indicate it's reference to the Passover. The Hebrew word for "weeks" here is the same word used by Daniel in referencing the weeks of years in Daniel 9:24-27 (see notes). Therefore, to put this into perspective, this day fell exactly 7 sevens or 49 days after the Feast of Firstfruits (both on a Sunday). So, to call it the Feast of Sevens rather than the Feast of Weeks gives us a better idea of how it got it's name. It gets a lot of attention in scripture (Exodus 23:16, see notes; Leviticus 23:15-21, see notes; Deuteronomy 16:9-12, see notes). You may also recall the big happenings in Acts 2 (see notes) on this very day when the Holy Spirit was manifested and the church in Jerusalem was established. This festival was the first big gathering of Jews after the crucifixion which had taken place on Passover. Another communal offering was made consisting of two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs of the first year along with a goat.

Offerings for the Feast of Trumpets (Numbers 29:1-6)
(see festival chart)

1 And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you.
2 And ye shall offer a burnt offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD; one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the first year without blemish:
3 And their meat offering shall be of flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals for a bullock, and two tenth deals for a ram,
4 And one tenth deal for one lamb, throughout the seven lambs:
5 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering, to make an atonement for you:
6 Beside the burnt offering of the month, and his meat offering, and the daily burnt offering, and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according unto their manner, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.

On the first day of the seventh month, the trumpets were sounded according to Leviticus 23:23-25 (see notes). This was the first month of the civil year and was a no-work day. We had a few verses dedicated to these trumpets in Numbers 10:1-10 (see notes). Offerings were the same as for the first two feasts, except that only one young bull was brought.

Offerings for the Day of Atonement (Numbers 29:7-11)
(see festival chart)

7 And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work therein:
8 But ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD for A SWEET SAVOUR; ONE YOUNG BULLOCK, ONE RAM, AND seven lambs of the first year; they shall be unto you without blemish:
9 And their meat offering SHALL BE OF FLOUR MINGLED WITH OIL, THREE TENTH DEALS TO A BULLOCK, AND two tenth deals to one ram,
10 A several tenth deal for one lamb, throughout the seven lambs:
11 One kid of the goats FOR a sin offering; beside the sin offering of atonement, and the continual burnt offering, and the meat offering of it, and their drink offerings.

On the tenth day of the seventh month the Jews observed the Day of Atonement (aka Yom Kippur), when all sin was put away (Leviticus 16:1-34, see notes). It's observance is also specified in Leviticus 23:26-32 (see notes). This was the only occasion in the year when the high priest could enter the Most Holy Place, and the whole congregation fasts in verse 7 where they are told to "afflict your souls." That phrase is used to indicate a fast in Isaiah 58 (see notes). They were also to refrain from work on this day, as it was a no-work day.

The Ark of the Covenant disappeared prior to Jerusalem's fall in 586 B.C. In Jesus' day, there was no mercy seat in the Holy of Holies of the Temple. We're told by extra-biblical sources that there was just a big rock in there. Today's Jews don't even have a temple. All that remains of this special day today (Yom Kippur) is the fasting; no sacrificing of animals is done. It is still observed by most practicing Jews, but quite differently from the pattern of observance specified here in scripture.

Offerings for the Feast of Tabernacles (Numbers 29:12-40)
(see festival chart)

12 And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days:
13 And ye shall offer a burnt offering, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD; thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish:
14 And their meat offering shall be of flour mingled with oil, three tenth deals unto every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth deals to each ram of the two rams,
15 And a several tenth deal to each lamb of the fourteen lambs:
16 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, his meat offering, and his drink offering.
17 And on the second day ye shall offer twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs of the first year without spot:
18 And their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
19 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, and the meat offering thereof, and their drink offerings.
20 And on the third day eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs of the first year without blemish;
21 And their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
22 And one goat for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering.
23 And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year without blemish:
24 Their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
25 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, his meat offering, and his drink offering.
26 And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year without spot:
27 And their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
28 And one goat for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering.
29 And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year without blemish:
30 And their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
31 And one goat for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, his meat offering, and his drink offering.
32 And on the seventh day seven bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year without blemish:
33 And their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
34 And one goat for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, his meat offering, and his drink offering.
35 On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no servile work therein:
36 But ye shall offer a burnt offering, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven lambs of the first year without blemish:
37 Their meat offering and their drink offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the manner:
38 And one goat for a sin offering; beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering.
39 These things ye shall do unto the LORD in your set feasts, beside your vows, and your freewill offerings, for your burnt offerings, and for your meat offerings, and for your drink offerings, and for your peace offerings.
40 And Moses told the children of Israel according to all that the LORD commanded Moses.

Here's another no-work day on the fifteenth day of the seventh month. It is also referred to as the "Feast of Booths" or by its Hebrew designation, "Sukkot." This was the final harvest of the year and occurred in the autumn prior to the onset of the rainy season marking the beginning of a new agricultural year. This seven-day festival was also referred to as the Feast of Ingathering in Exodus 23:16 (see notes); it is symbolized by the construction of booths. The first day of this festival was a no-work day. Offered were thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs along with a goat. Over the seven-day period there are substantially more sacrifices made to commemorate this annual festival. We find more information about this festival in Leviticus 23:33-43 (see notes). Of special interest here is Leviticus 23:42-43, "Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths: That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." They all stayed in these booths for seven days each year during this festival to commemorate their wanderings after their exodus from Egypt. Hey! That's a camping trip every year!

This was also the day selected for the dedication of Solomon's Temple (I Kings 8:65, see notes). When the exiles returned to Israel in Nehemiah 8:13-18 (see notes), they determined to observe this festival. One more thing about this festival, it will be kept in perpetuity even after the millennium begins as we see in Zechariah 14:16 (see notes), "And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles."

More about vows (Numbers 30)

1 And Moses spake unto the heads of the tribes concerning the children of Israel, saying, This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded.
2 If a man vow a vow unto the LORD, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth.
3 If a woman also vow a vow unto the LORD, and bind herself by a bond, being in her father’s house in her youth;
4 And her father hear her vow, and her bond wherewith she hath bound her soul, and her father shall hold his peace at her: then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand.
5 But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth; not any of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand: and the LORD shall forgive her, because her father disallowed her.
6 And if she had at all an husband, when she vowed, or uttered ought out of her lips, wherewith she bound her soul;
7 And her husband heard it, and held his peace at her in the day that he heard it: then her vows shall stand, and her bonds wherewith she bound her soul shall stand.
8 But if her husband disallowed her on the day that he heard it; then he shall make her vow which she vowed, and that which she uttered with her lips, wherewith she bound her soul, of none effect: and the LORD shall forgive her.
9 But every vow of a widow, and of her that is divorced, wherewith they have bound their souls, shall stand against her.
10 And if she vowed in her husband’s house, or bound her soul by a bond with an oath;
11 And her husband heard it, and held his peace at her, and disallowed her not: then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she bound her soul shall stand.
12 But if her husband hath utterly made them void on the day he heard them; then whatsoever proceeded out of her lips concerning her vows, or concerning the bond of her soul, shall not stand: her husband hath made them void; and the LORD shall forgive her.
13 Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may establish it, or her husband may make it void.
14 But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day; then he establisheth all her vows, or all her bonds, which are upon her: he confirmeth them, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them.
15 But if he shall any ways make them void after that he hath heard them; then he shall bear her iniquity.
16 These are the statutes, which the LORD commanded Moses, between a man and his wife, between the father and his daughter, being yet in her youth in her father’s house.

We looked at the value of vows back in Leviticus 27 (see notes). Here in Numbers 30, we see some criteria regarding vows. A vow given in Israel was a serious matter. Note the declaration regarding a vow by a man in verse 2, "...he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth." We see the subordinate position of women in Israel in verse 3-16. If a woman under her father's care uttered a vow, her father could void that vow if done so that day. Likewise, the husband of a married woman could void a vow. Widows and divorced women must stand by their vows (verse 9).

We find a warning regarding vows in Deuteronomy 23:21-23 (see notes), "When thou shalt vow a vow unto the LORD thy God, thou shalt not slack to pay it: for the LORD thy God will surely require it of thee; and it would be sin in thee. But if thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee. That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and perform; even a freewill offering, according as thou hast vowed unto the LORD thy God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth." Notice what Solomon said about these voluntary vows in Ecclesiastes 5:4-5, "When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for he hath no pleasure in fools: pay that which thou hast vowed. Better is it that thou shouldest not vow, than that thou shouldest vow and not pay."

Samuel was Hannah's vow to God in I Samuel 1 (see notes) prior to her conception. She subsequently presented him to the High Priest for service to God. And who can forget Jephthah's foolish, unscriptural vow in Judges 11 (see notes)? You will notice that offering a human as a burnt offering WAS NOT part of the regulations of Leviticus 27 (see notes); it was clearly a violation of the Law of Moses. While completely contrary to God's law, it does show us how seriously the Hebrews took their vows.

To accentuate this point on vows, consider the vow that Joshua was deceived into accepting with regard to the Gibeonites in Joshua 9 (see notes). Centuries later, under King David's rule in I Samuel 21 (see notes), Israel experiences a drought from God because King Saul had disregarded the vow that Joshua had made regarding these Gibeonites. As I said, a vow is a very serious matter with God.


For commentary on another passage, click here.


Copyright 2003-2011 by Wayne D. Turner