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This is the New King James text of the passages.
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Matthew 27:2-30; Mark 15:1-19; Listen Podcast
Luke 23:1-25; John 18:28-19:3

In this passage, we see the following in Jesus' ministry:


Trial #4 - Taking Jesus to Pilate (Matthew 27:2; Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:28)

Matthew 27
Mark 15
Luke 23
John 18
2 And when they had bound Him, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
1 Immediately, in the morning, the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council; and they bound Jesus, led Him away, and delivered Him to Pilate.

1 Then the whole multitude of them arose and led Him to Pilate.
28 ¶ Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover.

One might get the impression that all of Jerusalem had turned out at this point to accuse Jesus from Luke 23:1, "Then the whole multitude of them arose and led Him to Pilate." However, we notice from the Matthew and Mark accounts that the "of them" was just the Jewish leaders and their loyal followers. Keep in mind, this appearance before Pilate takes place just after dawn - 6:30 a.m. or so. Jesus has already made three appearances for judgment through this night; these Jewish leaders knew they had a lot to do under the cover of night before the Jewish populace would begin their day. Most Jews would have been completely unaware of the sinister acts of their leaders at this early hour.

John mentions the passover observance plans of some of the Jewish leaders that prevented them from entering the "judgment hall" where Pilate was passing judgment on Jesus. Didn't Jesus and his disciples already observe passover the night before? It would appear that there was a difference of practice regarding the proper day to celebrate the passover supper as early as the first century - on Nisan 14 or Nisan 15. Today, Jews celebrate passover on Nisan 15, even though Leviticus 23:5 says, "On the fourteenth day of the first month [Nisan] at twilight is the LORD’S Passover." If you require clarification, click here to read the article entitled, "What is the correct day to observe the Passover?"

What about Judas? (Matthew 27:3-10)

3 ¶ Then Judas, His betrayer, seeing that He had been condemned, was remorseful and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,
4 saying, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood.” ¶ And they said, “What is that to us? You see to it!”
5 ¶ Then he threw down the pieces of silver in the temple and departed, and went and hanged himself.
6 ¶ But the chief priests took the silver pieces and said, “It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, because they are the price of blood.”
7 And they consulted together and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in.
8 Therefore that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day.
9 ¶ Then was fulfilled what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the value of Him who was priced, whom they of the children of Israel priced,
10 and gave them for the potter’s field, as the LORD directed me.”

Only Matthew deals with the remorse of Judas and his resulting demise. The word translated "repented" in the KJV (verse 3) is not the usual word for "repent." This word (metamelomai) is only used 5 times in the New Testament and holds the connotation of remorse or regret. The NKJV translates it as "remorseful." The common words for repent (metanoeo) and repentance (metanoia) are used 58 times in the New Testament and mean "change of mind or attitude." So...Judas regretted having done what he did. However, this remorse did not constitute salvation. Keep in mind the words of Jesus in John 6:70 (see notes) regarding Judas, "Did I not choose you, the twelve, and one of you is a devil?" Judas was remorseful that he had committed a tactical error as we see in verse 3, "...seeing that He had been condemned." Well...that wouldn't be the last miscalculation an emissary of Satan would make.

Incidentally, regarding the allusion to Jeremiah in verse 9, Ryrie ("The Ryrie Study Bible") writes the following explanation:

These words are found in Zechariah 11:12-13 with allusions to Jeremiah 18:1-4; 19:1-3. They are ascribed to Jeremiah since, in Jesus’ day, the books of the prophets were headed by Jeremiah, not Isaiah as now, and the quotation is identified by the name of the first book of the group, rather than by the name of the specific book within the group. Similarly in Luke 24:44, “Psalms” includes all the books known as the “Writings,” because it is the first book of the group.

Jesus and Pilate (Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:2-5; John 18:29-38)

Matthew 27
Mark 15
Luke 23
John 18
11 ¶ Now Jesus stood before the governor. And the governor asked Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?” ¶ Jesus said to him, “It is as you say.”
12 And while He was being accused by the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing.
13 ¶ Then Pilate said to Him, “Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?”
14 But He answered him not one word, so that the governor marveled greatly.
2 Then Pilate asked Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” ¶ He answered and said to him, “It is as you say.”
3 ¶ And the chief priests accused Him of many things, but He answered nothing.
4 Then Pilate asked Him again, saying, “Do You answer nothing? See how many things they testify against You!”
5 But Jesus still answered nothing, so that Pilate marveled.
2 And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ, a King.”
3 ¶ Then Pilate asked Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?” ¶ He answered him and said, “It is as you say.”
4 ¶ So Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowd, “I find no fault in this Man.”
5 ¶ But they were the more fierce, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to this place.”
29 Pilate then went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this Man?”
30 ¶ They answered and said to him, “If He were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you.”
31 ¶ Then Pilate said to them, “You take Him and judge Him according to your law.” ¶ Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,”
32 that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die.
33 ¶ Then Pilate entered the Praetorium again, called Jesus, and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?”
34 ¶ Jesus answered him, “Are you speaking for yourself about this, or did others tell you this concerning Me?”
35 ¶ Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?”
36 ¶ Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.”
37 ¶ Pilate therefore said to Him, “Are You a king then?” ¶ Jesus answered, “You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.”
38 ¶ Pilate said to Him, “What is truth?” And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, “I find no fault in Him at all.


Pilate wants no part of this. He suggests they take him back and give him a Jewish trial. Not good enough! Look at John 18:31, "Therefore the Jews said to him, 'It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death.'" Interestingly enough, if the Jews had executed him, it would have been done illegally by stoning. However, Roman execution is done on a cross. Look at John 18:32, "that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die." Jesus had already prophesied in John 3:14 (see notes) and John 12:31-33 (see notes) that he would die on a cross, an impossible scenario, had the Jews succeeded on those occasions when they sought to kill him.

The charge vocalized by the Jewish leadership to Pilate is found in Luke 23:2, "And they began to accuse Him, saying, 'We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ, a King.'" While the first two points of the accusation were not true, obviously the three-point charge is designed to make Jesus a Roman security threat so that Pilate cannot simply dismiss Jesus.

John records more of the actual conversation between Jesus and Pilate than do the other three writers. John notes that Jesus establishes that he has not come to set himself up as a king over a physical kingdom with an army (that comes later in Revelation 19:11-21, see notes); Jesus reasons that, were those his intentions, he would have defended himself from being taken in the garden with his own army. Pilate is convinced that Jesus is not guilty of a conspiracy to overthrow the Roman government as the Jewish leaders claim. Therefore, Pilate finds Jesus innocent of wrong doing, but prophecy is prophecy; Jesus must die on the cross.

Another motivation for these wicked Jewish leaders here is plausible deniability in the eyes of the common Jewish folks who had embraced the ministry of Jesus. You will recall that the point of the Judas betrayal was to capture Jesus in private - not while he was teaching during the day among the people. That was Judas' deal with the Jewish leaders - a private capture. All the Jewish trials were done during the night while the Jewish people slept. Obviously, the reasoning of the Jewish leaders involved the people waking up on passover day and seeing Jesus being crucified by Romans...not Jews. One can safely recognize that those bad ol' Romans were to be the culprits here; most people would never realize that their Jewish leaders had orchestrated the whole ordeal.

Trial #5 - Jesus appears before Herod (Luke 23:6-16)

6 ¶ When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked if the Man were a Galilean.
7 And as soon as he knew that He belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time.
8 Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad; for he had desired for a long time to see Him, because he had heard many things about Him, and he hoped to see some miracle done by Him.
9 Then he questioned Him with many words, but He answered him nothing.
10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him.
11 Then Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate.
12 That very day Pilate and Herod became friends with each other, for previously they had been at enmity with each other.
13 ¶ Then Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests, the rulers, and the people,
14 said to them, “You have brought this Man to me, as one who misleads the people. And indeed, having examined Him in your presence, I have found no fault in this Man concerning those things of which you accuse Him;
15 no, neither did Herod, for I sent you back to him; and indeed nothing deserving of death has been done by Him.
16 I will therefore chastise Him and release Him”

In the chronology, Pilate discovers that Jesus is from Galilee and sees a possible opportunity to pass this problem off to Herod Antipas who was the governor of that region and happens to be in Jerusalem at this time, apparently for the Passover Feast. Only Luke records this incident. It doesn't work, however; Herod and his rag-tag crew simply mock and torment Jesus before they send him back to Pilate. Luke then records that Pilate explains to the Jewish leadership that neither he nor Herod could find a capital offense regarding Jesus. We saw in Luke 23:2-5 (see above) that the Jewish leaders were trying to present Jesus to Pilate as a threat to Caesar's authority. However, their presentation failed. At this point, it is Pilate's thinking that he should chastise Jesus and release him.

Incidentally, notice that Herod "arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe" before sending him back to Pilate. Later, the Roman soldiers stripped this robe from Jesus and clothed him with a purple/scarlet robe (Matthew 27:28; Mark 15:17; John 19:2 (see below).

Trial #6 - Surely they don't want a murderer released!
(Matthew 27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Luke 23:17-25; John 18:39-19:1)

Matthew 27
Mark 15
Luke 23
John 18
15 ¶ Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to releasing to the multitude one prisoner whom they wished.
16 And at that time they had a notorious prisoner called Barabbas.
17 Therefore, when they had gathered together, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?”
18 For he knew that they had handed Him over because of envy.
19 ¶ While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, “Have nothing to do with that just Man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of Him.”
20 ¶ But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitudes that they should ask for Barabbas and destroy Jesus.
21 The governor answered and said to them, “Which of the two do you want me to release to you?” ¶ They said, “Barabbas!”
22 ¶ Pilate said to them, “What then shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?” ¶ They all said to him, “Let Him be crucified!”
23 ¶ Then the governor said, “Why, what evil has He done?” ¶ But they cried out all the more, saying, “Let Him be crucified!”
24 ¶ When Pilate saw that he could not prevail at all, but rather that a tumult was rising, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this just Person. You see to it.”
25 ¶ And all the people answered and said, “His blood be on us and on our children.”
26 ¶ Then he released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified.
6 ¶ Now at the feast he was accustomed to releasing one prisoner to them, whomever they requested.
7 And there was one named Barabbas, who was chained with his fellow rebels; they had committed murder in the rebellion.
8 Then the multitude, crying aloud, began to ask him to do just as he had always done for them.
9 But Pilate answered them, saying, “Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?”
10 For he knew that the chief priests had handed Him over because of envy.
11 ¶ But the chief priests stirred up the crowd, so that he should rather release Barabbas to them.
12 Pilate answered and said to them again, “What then do you want me to do with Him whom you call the King of the Jews?”
13 ¶ So they cried out again, “Crucify Him!”
14 ¶ Then Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has He done?” ¶ But they cried out all the more, “Crucify Him!”
15 ¶ So Pilate, wanting to gratify the crowd, released Barabbas to them; and he delivered Jesus, after he had scourged Him, to be crucified.
17 (for it was necessary for him to release one to them at the feast).
18 ¶ And they all cried out at once, saying, “Away with this Man, and release to us Barabbas”—
19 who had been thrown into prison for a certain rebellion made in the city, and for murder.
20 ¶ Pilate, therefore, wishing to release Jesus, again called out to them.
21 But they shouted, saying, “Crucify Him, crucify Him!”
22 ¶ Then he said to them the third time, “Why, what evil has He done? I have found no reason for death in Him. I will therefore chastise Him and let Him go.”
23 ¶ But they were insistent, demanding with loud voices that He be crucified. And the voices of these men and of the chief priests prevailed.
24 So Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they requested.
25 And he released to them the one they requested, who for rebellion and murder had been thrown into prison; but he delivered Jesus to their will.

39 ¶ “But you have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Do you therefore want me to release to you the King of the Jews?”
40 ¶ Then they all cried again, saying, “Not this Man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.

19:1 So then Pilate took Jesus and scourged Him.

Keep in mind, the crowd had been transported from the Sanhedrin to Pilate. As a matter of fact, Matthew tells us in verse 18 that Pilate is aware that the real issue here is "envy" on the part of these Jewish leaders. However, when given the choice between the release of Jesus or the murderer Barabbas, Pilate is certain they will call for the release of Jesus over a murderer. Wrong! There is no morality with the Jewish leaders. Barabbas only threatens their lives, not their livelihoods. Only Matthew records that Pilate's wife weighs in on the controversy. She's had a dream, "Pilate...just step away!" wife or these angry Jews - to whom do I listen? That's when Pilate does the infamous hand washing. Influenced by the polls, he fails to act on his own moral conscience and his wife's dream. As he washes his hands, look at what he says in verse 24, "When Pilate saw that he could not prevail at all, but rather that a tumult was rising, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, “I am innocent of the blood of this just Person. You see to it." However, pay careful attention to the reply made by these Jewish leaders in verse 25, "And all the people answered and said, 'His blood be on us and on our children.'" Matthew, Mark and John then record that Jesus was scourged.

Isaiah said there would be a day like this! (Matthew 27:27-30; Mark 15:16-19; John 19:2-3)

Matthew 27
Mark 15
John 19
27 ¶ Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole garrison around Him.
28 And they stripped Him and put a scarlet robe on Him.
29 When they had twisted a crown of thorns, they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand. And they bowed the knee before Him and mocked Him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!”
30 Then they spat on Him, and took the reed and struck Him on the head.
16 ¶ Then the soldiers led Him away into the hall called Praetorium, and they called together the whole garrison.
17 And they clothed Him with purple; and they twisted a crown of thorns, put it on His head,
18 and began to salute Him, “Hail, King of the Jews!”
19 Then they struck Him on the head with a reed and spat on Him; and bowing the knee, they worshiped Him.
2 And the soldiers twisted a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe.
3 Then they said, “Hail, King of the Jews!” And they struck Him with their hands.

Matthew, Mark and John record that the Roman soldiers mocked, spit and smote Jesus after replacing his robe (the one Herod had given him) with a purple/scarlet one and placing the homemade crown of thorns on his head. What kind of an adult male finds this entertaining? These Roman soldiers had no stake in this controversy whatsoever. So...why did they do what they did? Prophecy...Isaiah 53 (see notes) - the account of the suffering of the Messiah had been written down centuries before.