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The daily summaries are written by Wayne D. Turner, Pastor of Fayette Bible Church in Fayetteville, Georgia

This is the November 4 reading. Select here for a new reading date:


BibleTrack Summary: November 4
Kings & Prophets
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For New King James text and comment, click here.

 

 

II Kings 24-25; II Chronicles 36   Listen Podcast

 

 

King Jehoahaz - the three month reign of Josiah's evil son (II Chronicles 36:1-3)
Jehoahaz also gets 3 verses in II Kings 23:31-33 (see notes)

II Kings 23
II Chronicles 36
31 Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
32 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done.
33 And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.
1 Then the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and made him king in his father’s stead in Jerusalem.
2 Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem.
3 And the king of Egypt put him down at Jerusalem, and condemned the land in an hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold.

After Josiah's death (II Kings 23:29-30; II Chronicles 35:20-27, see notes) in battle against the Pharaoh of Egypt, the people selected his third son, Jehoahaz, as their King over Judah, but he's evil - right from the beginning. At just 23 years old, the Egyptian Pharaoh takes him captive and appoints his older brother, Jehoiakim, as the new King of Judah. During this period of time, Jerusalem was held and taxed by Egypt.

A Summary of King #17 for 3 months in 609 B.C. over Judah: Jehoahaz
References The Good The Bad

II Kings 23:31-33
II Chronicles 36:1-3

Not specified - He was bad

II Kings 23:32 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done.

King Jehoiakim - just another evil king of Judah (II Kings 24:1-7; II Chronicles 36:4-8)

II Kings 24
II Chronicles 36
1 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him.
2 And the LORD sent against him bands of the Chaldees, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of the Moabites, and bands of the children of Ammon, and sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the LORD, which he spake by his servants the prophets.
3 Surely at the commandment of the LORD came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight, for the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he did;
4 And also for the innocent blood that he shed: for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood; which the LORD would not pardon.
5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
6 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead.
7 And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land: for the king of Babylon had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt.
4 And the king of Egypt made Eliakim his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem, and turned his name to Jehoiakim. And Necho took Jehoahaz his brother, and carried him to Egypt.
5 Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God.
6 Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon.
7 Nebuchadnezzar also carried of the vessels of the house of the LORD to Babylon, and put them in his temple at Babylon.
8 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and his abominations which he did, and that which was found in him, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah: and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead.

After Josiah (640-609), there was not another good king of Judah. Jehoahaz (II Kings 23:31-33, see notes) was Josiah's third son and became Josiah's successor as King of Judah. Why Josiah's third son? II Chronicles 36:1 says, "Then the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and made him king in his father’s stead in Jerusalem." Apparently the people of Judah saw more hope in him than the other sons. However, Jehoahaz only reigned three months before he was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into Egypt; there he died in captivity.

Pharaoh-Necho placed Jehoiakim (originally named Eliakim before Pharaoh changed it) on the throne of Judah. He served from 609-598 and was Josiah's second son (two years older than Jehoahaz) as a puppet king subject to the Egyptians. Subsequently, Egypt and Judah were conquered by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians. In the process, Jehoiakim was captured; he was prepared for the trip back to Babylon, but we do not know whether he was actually deported (see discussion below). This is the same time at which Daniel and his friends were taken to Babylon as well. Subsequently, Jehoiakim served as the puppet king, subject to the Babylonians. That's where we pick the story up here in II Kings 24.

Jehoiakim rebels against the Babylonians after three years. Jeremiah didn't have much use for Jehoiakim either (Jeremiah 22:18-19, see notes; Jeremiah 36:30, see notes). His death is not well documented in scripture; we are only told in II Kings 24:6 that "Jehoiakim slept with his fathers." In II Chronicles 36:6 we are told that Nebuchadnezzar "bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon," but we aren't told that he actually made the trip to Babylon. However, the historian Josephus claimed that Jehoiakim met a violent death when he was thrown over the wall of Jerusalem right before the besieging Babylonian army to convince them that he was dead. Jehoiakim is succeeded by his son, Jehoiachin, but only for three months.

Incidentally, it should be noted in II Kings 24:3 that which we already knew when it says, "Surely at the commandment of the LORD came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight, for the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he did." King Manasseh (695-642) had indulged in such atrocities during his reign, Judah was still paying the price. Even during the good reign of Josiah (640-609) it was reported in II Kings 23:26 (see notes), "Notwithstanding the LORD turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal."

A Summary of King #18 from 609 to 598 B.C. over Judah: Jehoiakim
References The Good The Bad

II Kings 23:34-37
II Chronicles 36:4-8

Not specified - He was bad

II Kings 23:37 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his fathers had done.

II Chronicles 36:5 Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God.

Jehoiachin (evil also) becomes king of Judah for 3 months (II Kings 24:8-9; II Chronicles 36:9-10)

II Kings 24
II Chronicles 36
8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. And his mother’s name was Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem.
9 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his father had done.
9 Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD.
10 And when the year was expired, king Nebuchadnezzar sent, and brought him to Babylon, with the goodly vessels of the house of the LORD, and made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem.

II Kings 24:8 reports that Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king after his father's (Jehoiakim) death. II Chronicles 36:9 says he was just eight. We have no way of knowing for certain, but perhaps the answer lies in II Chronicles 36:6. There we are told regarding Jehoiakim, "Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon." If Jehoiakim was actually taken to Babylon for a period of time and then returned later to his throne, it makes sense that his son, Jehoiachin, at just eight years of age, was regarded as the co-regent in his father's absence. Direct descendants were regarded as kings at any age. Furthermore, since there would have been no way of knowing whether or not Jehoiakim would ever return from Babylon, the people very likely regarded him as the new king after Jehoiakim's deportation. However, Jehoiakim did return, and upon doing so, resumed his role as king and perhaps shared the title with his son until his death. That would also lend understanding to how it could be determined that Jehoiachin was so evil after just three months.

Jehoiachin only has a three-month rule before he is deposed and taken to Babylon to live out the rest of his life. He was accompanied by his fellow government officials, mother and his wives. Jehoiachin had a couple of aliases in the Bible - Jechonias in Matthew 1:11-12 (see notes) and sometimes in Jeremiah, just Coniah i.e. Jeremiah 22:24-27 (see notes). In Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar imprisoned him for 37 years (Jeremiah 52:31-33, see notes). Upon Neb's death, his successor (Evil-merodach) freed Jehoiachin and permitted him to occupy a place in the king’s household and sit at his table, receiving "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life" (Jeremiah 52:32-34, see notes).

A Summary of King #19 in 597 B.C. over Judah: Jehoiachin
References The Good The Bad

II Kings 24:8-16

Not specified - He was bad

II Chronicles 36:9 Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD.

Jerusalem is captured (II Kings 24:10-16)

10 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, and the city was besieged.
11 And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came against the city, and his servants did besiege it.
12 And Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers: and the king of Babylon took him in the eighth year of his reign.
13 And he carried out thence all the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king’s house, and cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the LORD, as the LORD had said.
14 And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths: none remained, save the poorest sort of the people of the land.
15 And he carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon, and the king’s mother, and the king’s wives, and his officers, and the mighty of the land, those carried he into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon.
16 And all the men of might, even seven thousand, and craftsmen and smiths a thousand, all that were strong and apt for war, even them the king of Babylon brought captive to Babylon.

Jehoiachin doesn't put up a fight when the Babylonian army comes knockin' at the gate of Jerusalem; he just lets them in. They take everything of value. They also transport all the influential and skilled people in Jerusalem back to Babylon, including Jehoiachin, just as Jeremiah had prophesied (Jeremiah 22:24-27, see notes). This deportation system had been used by the Assyrians before, and now by the Babylonians; they, immediately upon conquering a nation, got the movers and shakers out of the land so as to destroy the national pride. That just left the poor people (verse 14). Subsequently they typically would bring the influential people in from other parts of their empire to inhabit their conquered land - in this case, Judah and Jerusalem.

For a comprehensive look at the fall of Jerusalem, click here to see the notes on Jeremiah 52.

Another King - Zedekiah, a puppet of Babylon - and of course, evil (II Kings 24:17-20; II Chronicles 36:11-16)

II Kings 24
II Chronicles 36
17 And the king of Babylon made Mattaniah his father’s brother king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah.
18 Zedekiah was twenty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
19 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done.
20 For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, until he had cast them out from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.
11 Zedekiah was one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and reigned eleven years in Jerusalem.
12 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God, and humbled not himself before Jeremiah the prophet speaking from the mouth of the LORD.
13 And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the LORD God of Israel.
14 Moreover all the chief of the priests, and the people, transgressed very much after all the abominations of the heathen; and polluted the house of the LORD which he had hallowed in Jerusalem.
15 And the LORD God of their fathers sent to them by his messengers, rising up betimes, and sending; because he had compassion on his people, and on his dwelling place:
16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against his people, till there was no remedy.

He is Jehoiachin's uncle (the last living son of Josiah) and is appointed puppet King of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar. In II Chronicles 36:10, Zedekiah in the KJV is called Jehoiachin's brother, but the Hebrew word (ach) used there can be translated brother or kinsman. We see here in II Kings 24:17 that Zedekiah was, in fact, Jehoiachin's uncle. After 11 years of this puppet thing, Zedekiah rebels against Babylon. There were lots of warnings to Zedekiah, but he wouldn't listen to Jeremiah or any of the other messengers God sent. II Chronicles 36:16 says, "But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against his people, till there was no remedy."

I find interesting II Chronicles 36:13, "And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the LORD God of Israel." Nebuchadnezzar apparently knew how special Jewish oaths were...or at least were supposed to be. Two chapters of the law are dedicated to the fulfillment of oaths/vows. Leviticus 27 (see notes) and Numbers 30 (see notes) are both dedicated to this Hebrew concept of the Law of Moses. Moreover, Israel suffered at the hand of God for Saul's disregard of oaths during his reign as outlined in II Samuel 21:1-14 (see notes). Zedekiah apparently made an oath with Jehovah in the presence of Nebuchadnezzar that he would not rebel, but changed his mind.

A Summary of King #20 from 597 to 586 B.C. over Judah: Zedekiah
References The Good The Bad

II Kings 24:17-25:7
II Chronicles 36:11-21

Not specified - He was bad

II Kings 24:19 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done.

II Chronicles 36:12 And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God, and humbled not himself before Jeremiah the prophet speaking from the mouth of the LORD.

 

 

Now it's show time for Nebuchadnezzar (II Kings 25:1-21; II Chronicles 36:17-21)

II Kings 25
II Chronicles 36
1 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it; and they built forts against it round about.
2 And the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah.
3 And on the ninth day of the fourth month the famine prevailed in the city, and there was no bread for the people of the land.
4 And the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled by night by the way of the gate between two walls, which is by the king’s garden: (now the Chaldees were against the city round about:) and the king went the way toward the plain.
5 And the army of the Chaldees pursued after the king, and overtook him in the plains of Jericho: and all his army were scattered from him.
6 So they took the king, and brought him up to the king of Babylon to Riblah; and they gave judgment upon him.
7 And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, and put out the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him with fetters of brass, and carried him to Babylon.
8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which is the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem:
9 And he burnt the house of the LORD, and the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great man’s house burnt he with fire.
10 And all the army of the Chaldees, that were with the captain of the guard, brake down the walls of Jerusalem round about.
11 Now the rest of the people that were left in the city, and the fugitives that fell away to the king of Babylon, with the remnant of the multitude, did Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carry away.
12 But the captain of the guard left of the poor of the land to be vinedressers and husbandmen.
13 And the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD, and the bases, and the brasen sea that was in the house of the LORD, did the Chaldees break in pieces, and carried the brass of them to Babylon.
14 And the pots, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith they ministered, took they away.
15 And the firepans, and the bowls, and such things as were of gold, in gold, and of silver, in silver, the captain of the guard took away.
16 The two pillars, one sea, and the bases which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD; the brass of all these vessels was without weight.
17 The height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits, and the chapiter upon it was brass: and the height of the chapiter three cubits; and the wreathen work, and pomegranates upon the chapiter round about, all of brass: and like unto these had the second pillar with wreathen work.
18 And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the second priest, and the three keepers of the door:
19 And out of the city he took an officer that was set over the men of war, and five men of them that were in the king’s presence, which were found in the city, and the principal scribe of the host, which mustered the people of the land, and threescore men of the people of the land that were found in the city:
20 And Nebuzaradan captain of the guard took these, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Riblah:
21 And the king of Babylon smote them, and slew them at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was carried away out of their land.
17 Therefore he brought upon them the king of the Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon young man or maiden, old man, or him that stooped for age: he gave them all into his hand.
18 And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon.
19 And they burnt the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof.
20 And them that had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia:
21 To fulfil the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and ten years.

The fall of Jerusalem and capture of Zedekiah is also seen in Jeremiah 39 (see notes).
Nebuchadnezzar's not at all happy that Zedekiah won't continue to be his puppet king over Judah. He brings his army and blocks off the city from the outside world causing great famine in Jerusalem. The king and his "men of war" fled the city, but were not able to escape without Babylonian pursuit. King Zedekiah was captured. So, what do you do to your rebel king when he flexes his muscles? Nebuchadnezzar makes Zedekiah watch the slaughter of his sons just before he puts his eyes out. Think about the last image Zedekiah saw. He then takes him captive and blind back to Babylon. Then the Babylonians return to take away the rest of Judah's influential people (presumably those they missed before), leaving only very poor folks in Judah. They even take portions of the structure of the temple back to Babylon along with some of the sacred temple furniture. One last sweep of Judah brings forth a few more of Judah's leaders before Nebuchadnezzar, including Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the second priest, along with the three keepers of the door; he kills them too.

Let's give a special notice to II Chronicles 36:21, "To fulfil the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and ten years." Jeremiah had prophesied that the exile from the land would last 70 years; that's what this verse is talking about. Click here to read a summary of the details regarding Jeremiah's exile prophecy.

Gedaliah becomes governor of Judah (II Kings 25:22-26)

22 And as for the people that remained in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left, even over them he made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, ruler.
23 And when all the captains of the armies, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah governor, there came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan the son of Careah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.
24 And Gedaliah sware to them, and to their men, and said unto them, Fear not to be the servants of the Chaldees: dwell in the land, and serve the king of Babylon; and it shall be well with you.
25 But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldees that were with him at Mizpah.
26 And all the people, both small and great, and the captains of the armies, arose, and came to Egypt: for they were afraid of the Chaldees.

No more kings of Judah - just a governor appointed by Nebuchadnezzar, also recorded in Jeremiah 40 (see notes). Gedaliah gets a surprise visit from some men described as from royal seed who murder him and subsequently flee to Egypt, an event that is detailed in Jeremiah 41 (see notes).

Jehoiachin finally catches a break (II Kings 25:27-30)

27 And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, that Evilmerodach king of Babylon in the year that he began to reign did lift up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah out of prison;
28 And he spake kindly to him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon;
29 And changed his prison garments: and he did eat bread continually before him all the days of his life.
30 And his allowance was a continual allowance given him of the king, a daily rate for every day, all the days of his life.

Whatever happened to ol' Jehoiachin? Well, remember back in II Kings 24:10-16 (see above) he was captured by the Babylonian army and taken back to Babylon. He was only king for 3 months, but Nebuchadnezzar kept him in prison for 37 years. Evil-merodach follows Nebuchadnezzar, releases Jehoiachin from prison, gives him an allowance and has him over for dinner everyday. I guess evil loves evil. Jeremiah also records this release of Jehoiachin in Jeremiah 52:31-34 (see notes).

A preview to the Book of Ezra (II Chronicles 36:22-23)

22 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying,
23 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all his people? The LORD his God be with him, and let him go up.

These two verses are essentially the same as the first two verses of Ezra. The Book of Ezra is a continuation of the story line in I and II Chronicles. These verses give us a running start into Ezra. Click here to go to the summary on Ezra 1.


For commentary on another passage, click here.


Copyright 2003-2011 by Wayne D. Turner